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Yarn is that material without which nothing is possible in the domain of textiles. Weaving, sewing, knitting, and many more are the processes of making an exquisite piece of cloth.

Yarn is that material without which nothing is possible in the domain of textiles. Weaving, sewing, knitting, and many more are the processes of making an exquisite piece of cloth. Several yarns are interlocked together to design an outfit. The quality and type of yarn are decided upon the kind of clothing that has to be made.

In the process of yarn manufacturing, fibre has a dominant role to play. Various fibres are interconnected to make yarn. Individually, the fibres are scattered pieces and they have to undergo a carefully handled process that results in an excellent quality yarn. There are several tools and procedures that are crucial to complete the process of making yarn from fibre.

The Inception of Yarn Manufacturing 

The traces of yarn making can be found in the prehistoric ages. In the early 19th century, the fragments of cotton were obtained from an Indus Valley Civilization site, Mohenjo-Daro. As the cotton that was found was in a woven pattern, we could draw that the process of yarn manufacturing must have taken place around that time.

The discovery of spindles from the sites of the ancient civilization proves the existence of yarn manufacturing. Different yarns were made at different sites in the world for making fabrics. For example, silk was made in China and reached across diverse lands via the means of the silk route. Similarly, the linen was found in the Southern Caucasus region i.e. the land of Georgia, presently. Along with the IVC site, cotton was found in the areas of the Nile region in Egypt.

Today the process of yarn manufacturing has changed as it has traveled through different periods in history. Therefore, the process that has been adopted in yarn manufacturing is an evolved one. However, the existence of yarn-making has its roots in the historic ages.

Types of Fibres used in Yarn Making Process

Yarn is obtained from the fibres. The fibres are interlocked to create a yarn that is further processed for manufacturing a fabric. Whatever type of fibre would go into the manufacturing of fabric will eventually classify the same.

The different fibres that are used for manufacturing the yarn are natural and manmade. Natural fibres are obtained from plants and animals. For example, cotton is sown and grown on the grounds. Linen is drawn from the flax plants. However, harvesting linen from plants is a lengthier process than extracting cotton.

The manmade or synthetic fibres are chemical based and are made through laboratory procedures. Synthetic fibres require less maintenance and are more durable when compared to animal-based fibres.

Tools used for Yarn Manufacturing Process

Yarn manufacturing has been taking place since ancient times. However, the tools that are put to use for spinning the yarn have kept on changing. The process was more stringent during ancient times when there were no electronic tools available.

Now, the procedures have become easier due to the availability of modern and advanced tools as well as techniques. Since the world is now power-based; therefore, the yarn is made in mills, now. The process has become feasible with the help of larger machines and great manpower.

The yarn making, conventionally, was done through a similar process to that of the modern one. However, all the operations were achieved manually. As the process was achieved through hand-spinning, the tools were manually operated. The tools that were used are-

  • Spindle: It is used for spinning the fibres into yarn. However, the process is painstaking using a spindle.
  • Distaff: The tool keeps the unspun fibres sorted. The distaff is used for wrapping up the fibres and holding them together with the help of a string.
  • Nostepinne: It is a wooden staff that is used for holding the spun yarn into a neat roll. A similar tool is a niddy noddy that helps in making the skeins from the spun yarn.


The procedure of yarn spinning evolved after the arrival of the spinning wheel. The handheld charkha has remained an emblem for yarn manufacturing. However, the phase of hand-spinning was changed during the industrial revolution after the arrival of spinning Jenny.

In the present era, electronically powered tools are used for manufacturing yarns. The mechanical equipment that is required for yarn spinning is mentioned below.

  • Combing Machine: It helps to clean and align the fibres for spinning.
  • Carding Machine: The tool helps in keeping the process of yarn spinning uniform.
  • Rotor Spinners: A rotor spinning machine helps in the making of yarn.

The electronically powered instruments help in enhanced functionality of the whole process of spinning. The procedure is more reliable and highly efficient.

Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Process Flow Chart

To explain the process of making yarn one has to understand all the steps that take place during the manufacturing of the yarn. These are mentioned below.

Getting the Fibres Ready

The fibres are sorted for different applications in this process. Natural fibres, also, need cleansing, unlike synthetic fibres.

Carding the Fibre

The process helps in making uniform series of fibres running like a web. It simplifies the processing of further stages.

Combing the Fibre

The fibres are combed to make parallel series. During the process of combing, the short fibres may fall out of the series.

Drafting the Fibre

The process straightens the fibres for the next stage. The assemblage of the fibres that is made by passing through rollers is called silvers.


It is the final step where the fibres are twisted together to make yarns. The fibres are twisted and run through high-speed rollers that turn them into yarns.


The meticulous process has been made easier to pursue with the inception of advanced machinery in the contemporary era. Automation is one of the common features that the textile industry is now embarking upon, in the area of yarn manufacturing.

Spinning machines have merged the different processes of sorting, combing, and drafting. Therefore, the process has already been simplified by the invention of these advanced tools. By merging these machines with automation, the cost of investment can be reduced significantly without compromising the quality.